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Power Industry

1、Monitoring system structure

The computer monitoring system of the hydropower station is functionally divided into: the power station control layer and the local control layer.

(1)power station control layer

The power station control layer is composed of the relevant main control level monitoring equipment in the power station computer room and the central control relay protection room. The main equipment includes the main computer of the power station, operator workstation, operator console, training platform, engineer/training workstation, communication workstation, voice alarm and ON-CALL workstation, satellite synchronous clock system, printer and CD recorder, UPS, etc.

(2) local control layer   

The local control unit level consists of seven local control units, and each LCU shall be intelligent and have programmable capabilities. LCU uses AB's ControlLogix's 1756 series products for hardware redundancy, supports hot-swap with point, runs in master/hot standby mode, and realizes redundant switching through Rockwell's redundant control module (1756-RM2) without additional programming. , the bottom adopts Ethernet ring network (DLR) for network redundancy. Use 1756-EN2TR for ring or star redundancy with the host computer.

(3)Operator workstation (2 sets)

The computer is located in the computer room of the power station workshop, and adopts a double-machine fully redundant configuration. Under normal conditions, one is working and the other is hot standby. If the working computer fails, the standby computer will take over and automatically complete the non-disturbance switching between the two machines. The software adopts the Server version of FactoryTalk View SE, and uses two server software for backup and switching. The backup and switching are all realized by the Server itself. The central control room is equipped with a set of UPS power supply with a capacity of not less than 3kVA. Featuring the Alpha Continuity 3KVA online UPS series, it is designed to perform rack/tower conversion using a rotating LCD panel, making it easy to integrate into a variety of applications and networks.

(4)Server Industry Private Cloud

Using the current mainstream industrial data center virtualization technology, each system server (including MES server, SCADA management server, historical database server, real-time database server, WEB publishing server, video server, security server, etc.) in the production area, operator station , The system of the engineer station is concentrated on the private cloud server of the group or factory, and the thin client is placed on the traditional system operator's position. Subverting the traditional structure, it not only maintains the original server architecture to the greatest extent, but also uses private cloud technology to enhance server performance and reliability, prolong the system life cycle, and protect the user's investment.

 

2、Network mode

◆The local area network must conform to the international standard IEE802.3u and the TCP/IP stipulation commonly used by the industry.

◆The local area network adopts a 100M fiber single ring network structure, and the power station control level equipment and the local control unit equipment are directly connected to the local area network.

◆The network equipment of the main station adopts industrial-grade Gigabit Ethernet ring network switches, and the local LCU network equipment adopts industrial-grade 100MHz Hertzmann RS series switches. Panduit Category 5 cables are used between the main station switch and each workstation.

Industrial Ethernet switches are Hirschmann RS series specially designed for harsh industrial environments. Its materials, components and installation methods are strictly designed and manufactured in accordance with industrial grades. Industrial indicators such as interference, vibration, shock, industrial temperature, etc., to ensure high reliability of the network. The equipment adopts a fanless design, supports 12~48VDC dual power supply redundancy, and has the function of reverse polarity protection of the power supply. Its performance index far exceeds that of general commercial network products. At the same time, the switch adopts standard industrial guide rail and rack-mounted installation, which is convenient for equipment setting in the industrial field.

The device supports redundant dual DC power input, which can automatically switch in case of failure of the main power supply system. And support the reverse polarity protection function of the power supply, when the positive and negative poles of the power supply are reversed, not only will the equipment not be burned, but it can continue to work normally, so it can well ensure the reliability of the network communication system and the safety of the equipment . 

The structure of the whole machine is designed in strict accordance with the relevant electromagnetic compatibility design specifications, which ensures that the system has good anti-static interference, anti-radio frequency interference, anti-electric burst interference, anti-lightning surge interference, anti-electric instantaneous drop interference and anti-radio frequency conduction interference. Ability

 

3、Clock system

The clock synchronization system adopts the special module of AB, which conforms to the IEEE1588 PTP time synchronization requirements.

 

4、Control layer   

The working power of each remote I/O is provided by its corresponding LCU respectively.

◆Unit local control unit (LCU1, LCU2, LCU3, LCU4)

The LCU should provide the RS-485 serial interface, the interface using the Modbus (Master and Slave) standard communication protocol, and the Molex for gateway protocol conversion. The module is directly inserted into the AB 1756 rack, and there are standard blocks for programming.

The international standard industrial Ethernet protocol EtherNet/IP is used between the PLC in the LCU and the workstation, and the communication rate reaches 100Mbps. The PLC uses the AB ControlLogix system governor oil pump control circuit and ball valve control circuit to enter the local LCU control of the unit.

◆  Public booster station local control unit (LCU5)

1 set of switch station local control unit LCU. LCU consists of AB's 1756 series plus PanelView Plus 7 series touch screen.

The international standard industrial Ethernet protocol EtherNet/IP is used between the PLC in the LCU and the workstation, and the communication rate reaches 100Mbps. The control system uses the AB ControlLogix system.


The bottom drive adopts Rockwell PowerFlex753 series inverter, adopts EtherNet/IP communication module with dual Ethernet interface, can realize DLR function (Ethernet ring network), Rockwell drive has a variety of control modes, standard V/ Hz, with full customization, speed sensorless vector control, with auto-tuning, flux vector control, with or without encoder feedback, induction and permanent magnet motor control.
The cabinet adopts Hoffman MI9 cabinet, the protection level is IP55, according to the standard GB 4208, which is equivalent to IEC 60529. It has super load-bearing capacity, and the cabinet components can be perfectly combined between cabinets in the same workshop, in the smart grid industry Medium, Hoffman MODO modular double-layer outdoor cabinet, double-wall structure, superior thermal solution, 75% energy saving than ordinary cabinets, made of high-quality stainless steel and aluminum plate, high-strength aluminum alloy frame, good anti-vibration , Anti-earthquake, load and EMC function, protection grade IP55.
Add industrial firewall Tofino on the bottom controller side. Regardless of the attack or human error anywhere in the network, the defense-in-depth model can effectively limit its impact on the entire network. Multi-layer protection, differentiated protection, and layering for specific threats protection.
 

Thermal power industry capabilities of the power industry:

With the development of society, network technology, computer technology and PLC control technology are becoming more and more mature, all auxiliary control systems of thermal power plants can enter the auxiliary network control system of the whole plant, realizing complete monitoring and operation in the centralized control room, greatly improving the level of automation, and more Greatly improve the efficiency of the whole plant.The auxiliary systems of thermal power plants mainly include: boiler make-up water system, condensate polishing system, hydrogen production station, circulating water treatment system, industrial wastewater treatment system, ash removal system, slag removal system, coal conveying system, etc. These auxiliary systems are closely related to the production process of the power plant. To ensure the normal operation of these auxiliary systems can ensure the safe operation of the power plant, so it is very important to monitor them.
In the past, the monitoring of these auxiliary systems was completed by a set of independent PLC control system, and the upper computer and control system cabinet were arranged in the control room of each auxiliary workshop. This control method makes the configuration of the control system equipment overlap, and the operation and management personnel are many, which is not easy to manage. Therefore, improving the control level of the auxiliary workshop and reducing the operation and management personnel of the auxiliary workshop have become the focus of the power plant to reduce personnel and increase efficiency.
The auxiliary network control system of the whole plant integrates all the auxiliary control systems of the power plant, including the coal conveying program control system, the chemical water program control system, the condensate water polishing program control system, the ash and slag removal program control system, the water purification station program control system, and the circulating water dosing system. The control system, hydrogen production station program control system, air compressor program control system, sewage program control system, etc. are integrated into an integrated control network, and centralized monitoring and control are performed in one control room, forming the second comprehensive control system parallel to DCS. 
The auxiliary network control system overcomes the shortcomings of the original independent and decentralized control system, and can minimize the operation and management personnel as much as possible. The control system makes the level of the auxiliary network control system basically equal to that of the main machine DCS control system without raising the cost basically, realizes the centralized control and management of the whole plant's integrated auxiliary machines, and makes the auxiliary control system create the same level as the main machine DCS. and the possibility of networking with other management systems. Real-time monitoring of the running status of water, coal and ash nets, and real remote control. Collect and save data centrally to facilitate centralized storage, processing and filing of production information. The centralized monitoring point is located in the centralized control room or the main workshop control room.
    

Water network PLC control system

The water network PLC control system is composed of water purification station and comprehensive pump room system, boiler supply water treatment system, domestic wastewater treatment system, circulating water dosing system, and non-recurrent wastewater treatment system to form a network to form the whole plant water network control system network , and then connect to the centralized monitoring network of the auxiliary workshops of the whole plant, and realize the monitoring, operation and control of the above systems and equipment through the upper computer of the water network control system of the whole plant or the operator station of the upper computer of the centralized monitoring system of the auxiliary workshops of the whole plant, and ensure that they are normal and reliable operation.
The data communication network of the water network control system of the whole plant is a distributed industrial Ethernet network. All network communication equipments are industrial switches, which are standard products of imported industrial-grade German Hirschmann MS30 series Ethernet fiber switches. The data communication system should connect each CPU processing unit, input/output module, man-machine interface and system peripherals to ensure reliable and efficient system communication.
The water network control system of the whole plant adopts a hierarchical control structure of control system + network + upper computer and access to the auxiliary system centralized monitoring network. The programmable controller should choose the Rockwell ControlLogix series products with mature operating experience in the power plant, and use the same series of modules to reduce the amount of spare parts and maintenance; /O module, support non-stop maintenance; output module requires pre-set fault handling function. The PLC device adopts a unified high-speed backplane bus, and the speed of the backplane bus is not less than 80M to ensure consistent system performance. The system is equipped with 2 sets of PLC system CPUs with redundant configuration. One set of redundant CPU controls the boiler feed water system, non-recurrent waste water system, domestic waste water treatment system, and circulating water dosing system; the other set of redundant CPU controls the purified water. Station and integrated pump room system. A total of 2 sets of mutually redundant debugging operator stations/engineer stations are set up.
The flow chart is as follows:

Coal conveying program control PLC system

The main tasks of coal conveying system in thermal power plants are coal unloading, coal storage, coal loading and coal blending. The coal conveying control system is to control the equipment of the coal conveying system so that it can run in a certain order in order to complete the above tasks. The main equipment includes dumper, bucket wheel stacker and reclaimer, belt conveyor, coal feeder, coal plow, dust collector, iron remover, roller screen and coal crusher, etc. Because large thermal power plants vary greatly in the amount of coal in a certain period of time. The amount of coal used also varies greatly, and the difference in coal quality may also be large. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of coal blending and coarse coal treatment, the coal conveying system must have various and very flexible operation modes, in order to meet the stable power generation of the unit. issued request.
 
The main features of the coal conveying system in thermal power plants are as follows:
(1) There are many system equipments. There are many types of equipment: coal feeder, dumper, bucket wheel stacker and reclaimer, belt conveyor, coal crusher, coal screener, coal plow, three-way baffle, dust collector, sampler, coal level detection device, Belt scales, etc.; a large number of equipment: the number of coal conveying system equipment in thermal power plants is generally more than 100.
(2) The system is widely distributed. Coal conveying systems in thermal power plants have scattered equipment, long operation lines, and flexible operation modes. They are generally distributed within a few kilometers, and some large thermal power plants are even farther away.
(3) There are many system failure points. Pull rope, deviation, overload and tear of belt; over temperature and over vibration of coal crusher; stuck or out of place of three-way baffle and coal plow; coal blocking of belt and coal sifter, etc.
(4) The technological process is complicated. Coal taken by various coal source equipment is transferred to the raw coal bunker through the switching of the electric three-way baffle through the belt conveyor (generally two-way), which can form dozens or even hundreds of technological processes.
(5)The operating environment of the system is harsh. The operating environment of the coal conveying system is dusty, and water, ash and pulverized coal abound, especially in summer when the temperature between the coal bunkers is as high as 50 degrees Celsius.

The coal conveying program control system of the whole plant adopts the hierarchical control structure of control system + network + upper computer and access to the auxiliary system centralized monitoring network. The programmable controller should choose the Rockwell ControlLogix series products with mature operating experience in the power plant, and use the same series of modules to reduce the amount of spare parts and maintenance; all modules can be plugged, including CPU, power module, communication module, I/O module, support non-stop maintenance; output module requires pre-set fault handling function. The PLC device adopts a unified high-speed backplane bus, and the speed of the backplane bus is not less than 80M to ensure consistent system performance. The system is equipped with 2 sets of PLC system CPU with redundant configuration. One set of redundant CPU controls the coal handling control system; the other set of redundant CPU controls the fuel pump room control system. A total of 2 sets of mutually redundant debugging operator stations/engineer stations are set up.

The flow chart is as follows:

Gray net PLC control system

The plant ash network control system is composed of the fly ash removal control system, the slag removal control system, the fly ash sorting control system, and the electric bag filter control system. The workshop centralized monitoring network realizes the monitoring, operation and control of the above systems and equipment through the upper computer of the whole factory gray network control system or the upper computer operator station of the whole auxiliary workshop centralized monitoring system, and ensures their normal and reliable operation. The programmable controller should choose the Rockwell ControlLogix series products with mature operating experience in the power plant, and use the same series of modules to reduce the amount of spare parts and maintenance;all modules can be plugged, including CPU, power module, communication module, I/O module, support non-stop maintenance; output module requires pre-set fault handling function. The PLC device adopts a unified high-speed backplane bus, and the speed of the backplane bus is not less than 80M to ensure consistent system performance. The system is equipped with 2 sets of redundant configuration PLC system CPU control fly ash system.

The fly ash removal system for each furnace includes the centralized transportation, storage and treatment of the ash hopper of the electric bag filter and the economizer/denitrator. The flow chart is as follows:

The flow chart of the slag removal system is as follows:

The bottom drive adopts Rockwell PowerFlex753 series inverter, adopts EtherNet/IP communication module with dual Ethernet interface, can realize DLR function (Ethernet ring network), Rockwell drive has a variety of control modes, standard V/ Hz, with full customization, speed sensorless vector control, with auto-tuning, flux vector control, with or without encoder feedback, induction and permanent magnet motor control.

The cabinet adopts Hoffman MI9 cabinet, the protection level is IP55, according to the standard GB 4208, which is equivalent to IEC 60529. It has super load-bearing capacity, and the cabinet components can be perfectly combined between cabinets in the same workshop, in the smart grid industry Medium, Hoffman MODO modular double-layer outdoor cabinet, double-wall structure, superior thermal solution, 75% energy saving than ordinary cabinets, made of high-quality stainless steel and aluminum plate, high-strength aluminum alloy frame, good anti-vibration , Anti-earthquake, load and EMC function, protection grade IP55.

Add industrial firewall Tofino on the bottom controller side. Regardless of the attack or human error anywhere in the network, the defense-in-depth model can effectively limit its impact on the entire network. Multi-layer protection, differentiated protection, and layering for specific threats protection.

The topology diagram of the auxiliary network control system of the whole plant is as follows:

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